gemara sotah

דרש רבי שמלאי מפני מה נתאוה משה רבינו ליכנס לא"י וכי לאכול מפריה הוא צריך או לשבוע מטובה הוא צריך אלא כך אמר משה הרבה מצות נצטוו ישראל ואין מתקיימין אלא בא"י אכנס אני לארץ כדי שיתקיימו כולן על ידי. And Rabbi Ḥama, son of Rabbi Ḥanina, says: What is the meaning of that which is written: “After the Lord your God shall you walk, and Him shall you fear, and His commandments shall you keep, and unto His voice shall you hearken, and Him shall you serve, and unto Him shall you cleave” (Deuteronomy 13:5)? “Because he bared his soul unto death,” meaning he gave himself over to death on behalf of the Jewish people, as it is stated: “Yet now, if You will forgive their sin; and if not, blot me, I pray You, out of Your book that You have written” (Exodus 32:32). GEMARA: It is taught in a baraita that Abba Ḥanin says in the name of Rabbi Eliezer: And why is so much done to her? It is also surprising to find the court playing a role in the midst of an otherwise priestly ordeal at a stage that is apparently not juridical.3. In fact, the appearance of the court in our mishnah is part of the public, even “theatrical” nature of the entire sotah ordeal in the Mishnah (as will be shown below in relation to the humiliation gestures in m. Sotah 1:5-6, and the description of her death in chapter 3). […] And lest you say: What ties us to this nuisance? כתנות עור רב ושמואל חד אמר דבר הבא מן העור וחד אמר דבר שהעור נהנה ממנו. With this minor physical adjustment, the Tosefta radically alters the meaning of the ritual – from a closed priestly procedure, as narrated in Numbers 5, into a public spectacle. Numbers 5 describes a ritual performed to test suspicions raised by a husband about his wife’s sexual fidelity. (משנה סוטה א:ה).

But hasn’t it already been stated: “For the Lord your God is a devouring fire, a jealous God” (Deuteronomy 4:24), and one cannot approach fire.

The ritual concludes with the sotah’s momentary entrance into the inner chamber and a quick and harsh exit from the Temple.

This is the very same comparative structure that appeared in the previous Mishnah: Witnesses in capital cases All three rituals mentioned in this mishnah indeed share the idioms לפני ה’, or אל פתח אוהל מועד, or both in the biblical sources.5. J. Efron. The mishna lists differences between this meal-offering and other meal-offerings.

Do not cause His great Name, written in holiness, to be blotted out by the water [of bitterness]. MISHNA: The husband of the sota would bring his wife’s meal-offering to the priest in an Egyptian wicker basket made of palm branches, and he would place the meal-offering in her hands for her to hold throughout the ritual in order to fatigue her. Although in fact the omer meal-offering is also brought from barley, it is still different in that it was brought as groats, i.e., high-quality meal. one from sin at all times, whether he's actively studying or not. The Mishnah’s rewrite of the Biblical ritual. After opening by referring to this gate as the site of the procedure, the mishnah adds an explicit comparison with other procedures that are supposed to take place at the same place. One might have thought that he will receive reward like the later ones and not like the earlier ones, so the verse states: “And he shall divide the spoil with the mighty,” meaning like Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, who were mighty in Torah and in mitzvot. The Gemara responds: Rabbi Eliezer holds.

אל תעשי לשמו הגדול שניכתב בקדושה שימחה על המים. והלא נאמר: “ובאבד רשעים רינה” (משלי יא י). However, the admonishment of witnesses in capital cases in m. Sanhedrin and the speech in our mishnah are quite different. Another difference between the admonishment of capital witnesses and the sotah is that the Mishnah assigns the latter case to “the great court in Jerusalem,” whereas according to Tractate Sanhedrin, all proceedings in capital cases, including the admonishment, are held before a court of twenty three judges. The sotah ritual, in contrast, cannot be possibly considered a purifying ritual. לפני יי ופרע את ראש האשה וג’,סדין שלבוץ היה פורס בינו לבין העם כהן פונה לאחוריה ופורעה כדי לקיים בה מצות פריעה.

גסטרא של בית פעור הראנו היכן משה קבור עמדו למעלה נדמה להם למטה למטה נדמה להם למעלה נחלקו לשתי כיתות אותן שעומדים למעלה נדמה להן למטה למטה נדמה להן למעלה לקיים מה שנאמר (דברים לד, ו) ולא ידע איש את קבורתו. Just as the Holy One, Blessed be He, consoles mourners, as it is written: “And it came to pass after the death of Abraham, that God blessed Isaac his son” (Genesis 25:11), so too, should you console mourners. M. Sotah 2:1 discusses the unique “offering of remembrance” brought by the sotah. Rabbi Samlai taught: For what reason did Moses our teacher greatly desire to enter Eretz Yisrael? In the previous mishnaic unit the comparison with capital punishment revealed a sophisticated attempt to give a legal flavor to an otherwise non-legal, unprecedented procedure of admonition.

It is in order to fatigue her, so that she will retract and confess her guilt and be spared death. The lack of such an option in our mishnah implies a fundamental difference between the rationales of the two admonition procedures. (and is certain that his decisions were correct), He is saved from ever sinning since such a, Rav Yosef said that Rabbi Menachem Bar Yossi expounded, ואילמלא דרשוה דואג ואחיתופל. Leg. The priest prepares a potion, consisting of “holy water,” dust from the tabernacle floor, and ink from an oath written on parchment. Such fear is indeed manifested in Rabbi Yehudah’s reservation to the mishnaic gesture of stripping the sotah, saying: “If her bosom was attractive he would not uncover it; if her hair was attractive he would not loosen it” (1:5). It has been said, “When the wicked perish there is gladness” (Prov 11:10). The speech addressed to the sotah in our mishnah, on the other hand, is completely unilateral in failing to exhort the wife to drink from the water if she is pure.2 The aim of the sotah admonition is solely to halt the process.

So, as a reward for his good deeds, Nevuchadnetzar's punishment was postponed twelve months. "That there may be an extension of your tranquility,". But if so, then this procedure cannot be considered as a legal trial (whether human or divine) in any sense of the term. He provides several examples. The Gemara discusses the verse: “And the Lord God made for Adam and for his wife garments of skin, and clothed them” (Genesis 3:21). Rabbi Yohanan ben Beroqah c early second centuries CE) objects to this ostensibly cosmetic change, which as we saw amounts to a profound shift in the ritual: The sages, however, reject this move, stating: The Mishnah does not record Rabbi Yohanan ben Beroqah’s opposition at all. No formal procedure can assure that the participants and the audience will receive only the “right” message. He explains: Rather, the meaning is that one should follow the attributes of the Holy One, Blessed be He.

Rabban Gamliel says: This hints that just as her actions of seclusion with another man were the actions of an animal, so too her offering is animal food, i.e., barley and not wheat. Rav and Shmuel disagree as to the meaning of the term “garments of skin.” Philo (Spec. The Barley Sacrifice, Dangerous Temptation, (ספרי במדבר יא), כשם שלא חסה על כבוד המקום כך אין חסין על כבודה, אלא כל הניוול הזה מנוולה, וכהן אוחז בבגדיה. These two procedures, even though they use different rhetoric, share the common objective of trying to deter their addressee from entering into a juridical procedure. ואומרין לפניה דברין שאינה כדיי לשומען, היא וכל משפחת בית אביה. וממאי משום דחסה הוא דילמא כי היכי דלא תימחק מגילה קסבר, The Gemara asks: And from where is it derived that they attempt to induce her to confess because the Torah is protective of the sota? He is not executed either by the court in his own city or by the court in Yavneh, but he is brought to the great court in Jerusalem and kept under guard pending one of the {three} festivals (regallim), and executed on one of the festivals, for it is written: “And all of Israel shall hear, and fear,” (Deut 17:13), thus {said} Rabbi Aqiva. והלא כבר נאמר: “והוא עד הוא ראה או ידע וגו” (ויקרא ה א). Today is Mon. The stage is given to the suspected wife. Rabbi Yehudah says: If her bosom was attractive he would not uncover it; if her hair was attractive he would not loosen it. In the same vein, the biblical phrase אל פתח אוהל מועד (at the entrance of the Tent of Meeting), was translated into the realm of the Temple as also referring to the Nikanor Gate.

In order to atone for the incident that transpired at Beth Peor (Numbers, chapter 25). A number of procedures have been added to the ritual; most significantly the ritual’s conclusion is altered so that the woman is subjected to a divine death and deformation of her body in a public, theatrical manner.

The Rabbinic Ordeal Having established the facts of the husband’s suspicions – that he warned his wife – we would now expect the suspected wife to be brought directly to the Temple for the ordeal procedure itself, as the Bible commands: “and the man shall bring his wife to the priest” (Num 5:15). This might lead her to confess her guilt and not drink the water of a sota unnecessarily. Rabbi Samlai taught: With regard to the Torah, its beginning is an act of kindness and its end is an act of kindness. Rather, this is what Moses said: Many mitzvot were commanded to the Jewish people, and some of them can be fulfilled only in Eretz Yisrael, so I will enter the land in order that they can all be fulfilled by me.

ומוסרין לו שני תלמידי חכמים, שמא יבוא עליה בדרך…(משנה סוטה א:ג), אם אמרה: טמאה אני – שוברת כתובתה ויוצָא. For while the Nikanor Gate is indeed located at the entrance to the Israelites’ Chamber, opposite the Sanctuary (hekhal), it is also located at the top of a stairway facing the Women’s Court, where all the people coming to the Temple gather. …they would take her up to the Eastern Gates, to the Nikanor Gates, where they make the sottot drink, purify women after childbirth, and purify lepers. (משנה סוטה א:ה), אינה מספקת לשתות עד שפניה מוריקות ועיניה בולטות והיא מתמלאת גידין, והם אומרים: הוציאוה הוציאוה, שלא תטמא את העזרה.

The two other cases mentioned in our mishnah – lepers and women after birth – refer to purity rituals. As the woman drinks the potion, the outcome of the trial manifests itself on her body, confirming or refuting her husband’s suspicions. I believe that the evidence above shows that this is in fact an apt closing of a theatrical spectacle, which begun at the “Great Court” and ends at “Nikonor Gate,” before all to see. 3: 57) presents his symbolic interpretation as binary – guilt vs. innocence: “The meal used is of barely, perhaps because as a foodstuff it is of somewhat doubtful merit, suited for irrational animals and men in unhappy circumstances, and thus is a symbol that the adulteress is quite on a par with wild beasts […] while the wife who is innocent of the charges brought against her has emulated the life which is fitted to human beings.”.

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October 27, 2020

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