This paper is based on my German article “Das Problem des eifernden Mannes: Das Eifer-Ordal in der biblischen Überlieferung und in der jüdischen Tradition,” in Behutsames Lesen: Alttestamentliche Exegese im interdisziplinären Methodendiskurs; Christof Hardmeier zum 65 Geburtstag, ed. The paramour’s marital status is irrelevant to the case.) “Accusations of Adultery: A Study of Law and Scribal Practice in Numbers 5:11–31.” In Hebrew Union College Annual 65 (1974): 25–45; Frymer-Kensky, Tikva. Nevertheless, once she drank the waters, the testimony of one witness is not sufficient to cause her to be considered guilty. an oath to her (as described in the verse), sacrifice her offering, and then וְאוֹמֵר לָהּ בְּלָשׁוֹן שֶׁמַּכֶּרֶת (במדבר ה יט) "אִם לֹא שָׁכַב אִישׁ אֹתָךְ וְאִם לֹא שָׂטִית טֻמְאָה תַּחַת אִישֵׁךְ הִנָּקִי מִמֵּי הַמָּרִים הַמְאָרַרִים הָאֵלֶּה" (במדבר ה כ) "וְאַתְּ כִּי שָׂטִית תַּחַת אִישֵׁךְ וְכִי נִטְמֵאת וַיִּתֵּן אִישׁ בָּךְ אֶת שְׁכָבְתּוֹ מִבַּלְעֲדֵי אִישֵׁךְ" (במדבר ה כא) "יִתֵּן ה' אוֹתָךְ לְאָלָה וְלִשְׁבֻעָה בְּתוֹךְ עַמֵּךְ בְּתֵת ה' אֶת יְרֵכֵךְ נֹפֶלֶת וְאֶת בִּטְנֵךְ צָבָה" (במדבר ה כב) "וּבָאוּ הַמַּיִם הַמְאָרְרִים הָאֵלֶּה בְּמֵעַיִךְ לַצְבּוֹת בֶּטֶן וְלַנְפִּל יָרֵךְ".
וּמַעֲשֵׂה אַמְנוֹן וַאֲחוֹתוֹ. The exquisite copper doors leading to the Although the Sotah trial was probably discontinued (if it was ever indeed practiced) during the Second Temple era, its cultural presence continued due to the study of Tractate Sotah as part of the talmudic codex. Similarly, he would reveal her hair,33 undoing the plaits of her hair, to make her look unattractive.
When there are witnesses, there is no need for the miraculous activity of the water. Similarly, one who repents and changes his ways realizes even more וְאִם עָבַר וְהִשְׁקָה אֶת אִשְׁתּוֹ הֲרֵי זֶה מוֹסִיף עַל חַטָּאתוֹ פֶּשַׁע שֶׁגָּרַם לַשֵּׁם הַמְפֹרָשׁ שֶׁיִּמָּחֶה בַּמַּיִם לְבַטָּלָה וּמוֹצִיא לַעַז עַל מֵי סוֹטָה שֶׁאִשְׁתּוֹ אוֹמֶרֶת לַאֲחֵרוֹת שֶׁזִּנְּתָה וְלֹא בָּדְקוּ בָּהּ הַמַּיִם וְהִיא לֹא תֵּדַע שֶׁמַּעֲשֵׂי הַבַּעַל גָּרְמוּ שֶׁלֹּא בָּדְקוּ בָּהּ: Therefore, when the number of people who openly committed adultery increased in the Second Temple era, the Sanhedrin52 nullified the use of the bitter water, relying on the verse in the [prophetic] tradition, [Hoshea 4:14]: "I will not punish your daughters when they commit harlotry.".  It is uncertain whether Numbers 5 (P or H) knew the text in Deuteronomy and I will not venture to make a definitive statement one way or the other here. Moshe Greenberg showed that while most cultures in biblical times perceived adultery as an offense against the husband and therefore left the punishment of the adulterers to him, in biblical law adultery is perceived, first and foremost, as a religious transgression that carries the death penalty (note that adultery in biblical as well as rabbinic literatures, is defined as sexual relations between a married woman and a man other than her husband. If she usually dresses in white, she should dress in black. Sotah 47a states that this took place in the time of Rabban Yochanan ben Zakkai, shortly before the destruction of the Second Temple. “Some Postulates of Biblical Criminal Law.” In Yehezkel Kaufmann Jubilee Volume, edited by Menahem Haran. 19–24), but a means of reuniting the couple. Our translation is based on the Rambam's Commentary on the Mishnah (Sotah 3:3). Even if we accept that the ritual was performed, it is hard to know exactly what form it took. First the husband comes to the court in his city and tells them: "I warned my wife [not to enter into privacy] with so and so, and she entered into privacy with him. Gen 39:9). . She gave him fine wine to drink in A half a log28 of water from the basin [from which the priests wash]29 is placed in it.
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