The Phung Nguyen culture (modern northern Vietnam) and the Ban Chiang site (modern Thailand) account for the earliest use of copper by around 2,000 BCE, followed by the Dong Son culture, which by around 500 BCE had developed a highly sophisticated industry of bronze production and processing. The Stone Age covered three distinct periods including the Palaeolithic, Mesolithic, and Neolithic period. However, after more than 20 years of fighting Indonesia, East Timor won its independence and was recognised by the UN in 2002. In 1775, the Lanfang Republic, possibly the first republic in the region, was established in West Kalimantan, Indonesia, as a tributary state of the Qing Empire; the republic lasted until 1884, when it fell under Dutch occupation as Qing influence waned. Either Arabian traders and scholars, who did not live or settle in India arrived directly in island Southeast Asia, or Arab traders, that had been settling in coastal India and Sri Lanka for generations. South Asia covers an area of about 1.9 million square miles. Islam also spread in the region during this period. Since Cambodian admission into the union in 1999, East Timor is the only Southeast Asian country that is not part of ASEAN, although plans are under way for eventual membership. Author and archaeologist Charles Higham suggests in his work "Hunter-Gatherers in Southeast Asia: From Prehistory to the Present" "the indigenous hunter-gatherers integrated with intrusive Neolithic communities and, while losing their cultural identity, contributed their genes to the present population of Southeast Asia." Jun 13, 1521 El zigzagueante camino entre la democracia popular, la alternativa autoritaria, la democracia del... Chalon-sur-Saône : Le film du projet commercial de la place du Général de Gaulle, CARACTERÍSTICAS DE LA ESCUELA DURANTE LOS SIGLOS XII - XIV, LÍNEA DEL TIEMPO DE LA HISTORIA DEL BASQUETBOL, Cronología de las versiones de microsoft word para windows, Linea de tiempo: "La historia del electromagnetismo".  Mahayana Buddhist ideas from India where the original Theravada Buddhism had already been replaced centuries ago took hold first in Southeast Asia. In 1619, acting through the Dutch East India Company, the Dutch took the city of Sunda Kelapa, renamed it Batavia (now Jakarta) as a base for trading and expansion into the other parts of Java and the surrounding territory. Most principalities had developed highly distinctive cultures as a result of centuries of active participation in the cultural interchange and by borrowing from the flow of ideas that criss-crossed the archipelago, coming from across the Indian Ocean in the west and the South China Sea in the east.  These immigrants might have, to a certain extent, merged and reproduced with members of the archaic population of Homo erectus, as the fossil discoveries in the Tam Pa Ling Cave suggest. However, their rivalry cooled in 1824 when an Anglo-Dutch treaty demarcated their respective interests in Southeast Asia. By the war's end in 1975, all these countries were controlled by communist parties. Indonesians, in particular were trading in spices (mainly cinnamon and cassia) with East Africa using catamaran and outrigger boats and sailing with the help of the Westerlies in the Indian Ocean. After the communist victory, two wars between communist states—the Cambodian–Vietnamese War of 1975–89 and the Sino-Vietnamese War of 1979—were fought in the region. Chinese culture diffused more indirectly and sporadic as trade was based on land routes like the Silk Road. Opinions vary on the identity and method of the agent. Malcolm only included the Mainland section and excluded the Maritime section in his definition of Southeast Asia. , The Dong Son culture established a tradition of bronze production and the manufacture of ever more refined bronze and iron objects, such as plows, axes and sickles with shaft holes, socketed arrow and spearheads and small ornamented items. Early humans during this period lived in stone caves. The Netherlands and Spain followed and soon superseded Portugal as the main European powers in the region. The civilization during this time had a more organized urban structure with brick houses, drainage, and water supply systems, and use of metals such as bronze, copper, and lead. During this period, humans would make weapons made from alloys through the use of kilns. ", Research has several answers as to what caused the distinct syncretic (its modern expression is cultural Islam, as opposed to Middle Eastern and North African political Islam) Islam in Southeast Asia, that allowed the continuation and inclusion of elements and ritual practices of Hinduism, Buddhism and ancient Pan-East Asian Animism. Debated are most claims over whether it was Indian merchants, Brahmins, nobles or Southeast Asian mariner-merchants who played a central role in bringing Indian conceptions to Southeast Asia. The introduction Christianity bought by the colonist also have profound effect in the societal change. The winds of the Northeast Monsoon during October to December prevented sailing ships to proceed directly from the Indian Ocean to the South China Sea. In the 1800s , The British and French colonized colonized with plantations , railroads , and mines . Indonesia was divided into North and South Vietnam . ASEAN has also been a front runner in greater integration of Asia-Pacific region through East Asia Summits. This tributary system was based on the Chinese worldview, that had developed under the Shang dynasty, in which China is deemed the center and apogee of culture and civilization, the Middle kingdom (Zhōngguó), surrounded by several layers of increasingly barbarous peoples. In the Philippines, the 1872 Cavite Mutiny was a precursor to the Philippine Revolution (1896–1898). Jun 13, 1200, The arrival of the Thais Jun 13, 1939, The WWII Japanese invasion of the Philippines Jun 13, 800, The emergence of Khmer civilization Jun 13, 1800, The period of French and British colonization In 1641, the Dutch took Malacca from the Portuguese. Excavations in prehistoric sites linked with the Riwatian period identify evidence of occupation by Homo erectus from Africa. With the rejuvenated nationalist movements in wait, the Europeans returned to a very different Southeast Asia after World War II. The idea of equality (before God) for the Ummat (the people of God) and a personal religious effort through regular prayer was more appealing to the average person than the perceived fatalism of the Hindu pandemonium. On 8 August 1967, the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) was founded by Thailand, Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore and the Philippines. , Local rulers have most benefited from the introduction of Hinduism during the early common era as it greatly enhanced the legitimacy of their reign. Catholicism is still the main religion there today . , Earliest attested trading contacts existed between Southeast Asia and the Chinese Shang dynasty (around 1600 BCE to around 1046 BCE), when cowry shells served as currency. Muslim traders from India (Gujarat), converts of South Asian descend and ethnicity are variously considered as to have played a major role.. The form of government forbids the holding of colonies. 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