In any one causal patch it is likely that only one bubble would nucleate. ... Kazanas (1980) called this phase of the early Universe "de Sitter's phase." Others believe that there is no resolution to the paradox and that the multiverse is a critical flaw in the inflationary paradigm. [clarification needed][93] New inflation requires the Universe to have a scalar field with an especially flat potential and special initial conditions. This was quickly interpreted as meaning galaxies were receding from Earth. Inflation theory was developed in the late 1970s and early 80s, with notable contributions by several theoretical physicists, including Alexei Starobinsky at Landau Institute for Theoretical Physics, Alan Guth at Cornell University, and Andrei Linde at Lebedev Physical Institute. Today, metric variation is far too small an effect to see on less than an intergalactic scale. The horizon problem is the problem of determining why the Universe appears statistically homogeneous and isotropic in accordance with the cosmological principle. N Therefore, hybrid inflation is not eternal. As the inflationary field slowly relaxes to the vacuum, the cosmological constant goes to zero and space begins to expand normally. ... Guth himself did not refer to work of Kazanas until he published a book on the subject under the title "The inflationary universe: the quest for a new theory of cosmic origin" (1997), where he apologizes for not having referenced the work of Kazanas and of others, related to inflation.[58]. It is a theory formulated after the Big Bang theory was left with several unresolved problems and unknowns. Ekpyrotic models avoid the magnetic monopole problem as long as the temperature at the Big Crunch/Big Bang transition remains below the Grand Unified Scale, as this is the temperature required to produce magnetic monopoles in the first place. The Big Bang theory tells us that the expansion of the universe will be gradually reduced with the passage of time and the Inflation Theory tells us the opposite, stating that the universe will expand more rapidly with the passage of time, even faster than the speed of light. Examples of string inflation 6. Therefore, there ought to be corrections from Planck-scale physics, in particular the unknown quantum theory of gravity. Hawking and Page later found ambiguous results when they attempted to compute the probability of inflation in the Hartle-Hawking initial state. In the standard hot big bang model, without inflation, the cosmological horizon moves out, bringing new regions into view. At a conference in 2015, Penrose said that "inflation isn't falsifiable, it's falsified. Current work on this model centers on whether it can succeed in stabilizing the size of the compactified dimensions and produce the correct spectrum of primordial density perturbations. Eventually, it was shown that new inflation does not produce a perfectly symmetric universe, but that quantum fluctuations in the inflaton are created. If the probability of different regions is counted by volume, one should expect that inflation will never end or applying boundary conditions that a local observer exists to observe it, that inflation will end as late as possible. In the late 1970s, Sidney Coleman applied the instanton techniques developed by Alexander Polyakov and collaborators to study the fate of the false vacuum in quantum field theory. These regions in which the inflaton fluctuates upwards expand much faster than regions in which the inflaton has a lower potential energy, and tend to dominate in terms of physical volume. However such a field would be scalar and the first relativistic scalar field proven to exist, the Higgs field, was only discovered in 2012–2013 and is still being researched. [...] For, if the thermalization is actually doing anything [...] then it represents a definite increasing of the entropy. The inflationary epoch lasted from 10−36 seconds after the conjectured Big Bang singularity to some time between 10−33 and 10−32 seconds after the singularity. Inflation is a process of rapid expansion and takes into account a large group of cosmological ideas such as quantum theory and element physics and is a mechanism for creating the basic cosmological principle of the physical cosmology model responsible for the homogeneity and isotropy of the observable universe. Paul Steinhardt, one of the original architects of the inflationary model, introduced the first example of eternal inflation in 1983. Such an interaction averts the unphysical Big Bang singularity, replacing it with a cusp-like bounce at a finite minimum scale factor, before which the Universe was contracting. Inflation theory brings together ideas from quantum physics and particle physics to explore the early moments of the universe, following the big bang. [88] Other forthcoming measurements, such as those of 21 centimeter radiation (radiation emitted and absorbed from neutral hydrogen before the first stars formed), may measure the power spectrum with even greater resolution than the CMB and galaxy surveys, although it is not known if these measurements will be possible or if interference with radio sources on Earth and in the galaxy will be too great.[89]. In a big bang with only the matter and radiation known in the Standard Model, two widely separated regions of the observable universe cannot have equilibrated because they move apart from each other faster than the speed of light and thus have never come into causal contact. Linde proposed a theory known as chaotic inflation in which he suggested that the conditions for inflation were actually satisfied quite generically. See Kolb and Turner (1988) or Mukhanov (2005). As the very early universe cooled it was trapped in a metastable state (it was supercooled), which it could only decay out of through the process of bubble nucleation via quantum tunneling. [citation needed] In the Soviet Union, this and other considerations led Belinski and Khalatnikov to analyze the chaotic BKL singularity in General Relativity. These fluctuations form the primordial seeds for all structure created in the later universe. Is the theory of cosmological inflation correct, and if so, what are the details of this epoch? [60] Since the simplest models of grand unification have failed, it is now thought by many physicists that inflation will be included in a supersymmetric theory such as string theory or a supersymmetric grand unified theory. Extrapolated into the past, this presents a fine-tuning problem because the contribution of curvature to the Universe must be exponentially small (sixteen orders of magnitude less than the density of radiation at Big Bang nucleosynthesis, for example). was between 0.15 and 0.27 (rejecting the null hypothesis; The inflationary epoch lasted from 10 seconds after the conjectured Big Bang singularity to some time between 10 and 10 seconds after the singularity. The big bounce hypothesis attempts to replace the cosmic singularity with a cosmic contraction and bounce, thereby explaining the initial conditions that led to the big bang. Nevertheless, many physicists, mathematicians, and philosophers of science have voiced criticisms, claiming untestable predictions and a lack of serious empirical support. [14] Yet as a local observer sees such a region for the first time, it looks no different from any other region of space the local observer has already seen: its background radiation is at nearly the same temperature as the background radiation of other regions, and its space-time curvature is evolving lock-step with the others. For any one observer, the distance to the cosmological horizon is constant. [115] Other authors have argued that, since inflation is eternal, the probability doesn't matter as long as it is not precisely zero: once it starts, inflation perpetuates itself and quickly dominates the Universe. The team announced the tensor-to-scalar power ratio [34][35] It became known in the 1960s that the density of matter in the Universe was comparable to the critical density necessary for a flat universe (that is, a universe whose large scale geometry is the usual Euclidean geometry, rather than a non-Euclidean hyperbolic or spherical geometry). When the field rolls very slowly compared to the expansion of the Universe, inflation occurs. Don Page was an outspoken critic of inflation because of this anomaly. [49]. r The term most often refers to increases of the last type. Because the accelerating expansion of space stretches out any initial variations in density or temperature to very large length scales, an essential feature of inflation is that it smooths out inhomogeneities and anisotropies, and reduces the curvature of space. "[7], A recurrent criticism of inflation is that the invoked inflaton field does not correspond to any known physical field, and that its potential energy curve seems to be an ad hoc contrivance to accommodate almost any data obtainable. There is evidence for a slight deviation from scale invariance. These parts of the Universe are outside our current cosmological horizon. As the density of the Universe decreases, the effects of torsion weaken and the Universe smoothly enters the radiation-dominated era. Inflation Theory is based on a process called inflation. In such models, most of the volume of the Universe is continuously inflating at any given time. [141] This model focuses on the dynamics of the early universe considered as a hot gas of strings. Once the other object has fallen through this horizon it can never return, and even light signals it sends will never reach the first object (at least so long as the space continues to expand exponentially). Inflation is a process of rapid expansion and takes into account a large group of cosmological ideas such as quantum theory and element physics and is a … It was very quickly realized that such an expansion would resolve many other long-standing problems. Therefore, it is necessary to have a theory for the Universe's initial conditions. It is important to mention that inflation is a process considered an important and integral part of the cosmological model of the Big Bang. As such, although predictions of inflation have been consistent with the results of observational tests, many open questions remain. Like Guth, they concluded that such a model not only required fine tuning of the cosmological constant, but also would likely lead to a much too granular universe, i.e., to large density variations resulting from bubble wall collisions.

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